COMMON DAILY LIFE CHEMICALS

SOAP – DETERGENT

SOAPS

Na or K salt of fatty acids is called soap. They are the most important cleaning agents used since ancient times.

CH3(CH2)16–COONa: Sodium stearate (White Soap)

CH3(CH2)16–COOK: Potassium stearate (Arab Soap)

  • Sodium (Na) soaps are hard and are used in molds. Potassium (K) soaps have lower melting points, soft soaps.

Soap Preparation:

When the soap is produced, the fatty acid is obtained by hydrolysis from the oil:

FAT + H2O –> FATTY ACID + GLYCERYN

Na or K soap is obtained by neutralization from this fatty acid:

FATTY ACID + NaOH –> Na SOAP + H2O

A soap molecule consists of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain with a polar head. The nonpolar hydrocarbon chain of the molecule is hydrophobic and dissolve in non-polar materials (eg oil). The polar head of molecule is hydrophilic (water-loving) and soluble in water. Soaps form a part of the surfactants.

DETERGENTS

They are synthetic materials, obtained from petroleum derivatives.

The formula of dodecyl (lauryl) sulfonate is as follows:

C12H25OSO3–Na: Sodium dodecyl (lauryl) sulfonate

Detergents are surfactants made of molecules with polar head and nonpolar tails such as soaps.

HOW SOAPS AND DETERGENTS CLEAN

Answer

II & III

SOAPS

  • They are obtained from vegetable or animal fats.
  • Since they are natural, they have no effect on the human body.
  • Structures are easily degraded by natural means.
  • They do not cause water pollution.
  • No harm to the environment.
  • They lose the power of cleaning over time
  • They form a precipitate with metal ions in hard water (contains Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions).
  • They clean more effectively in hot waters.
  • Used for thousands of years.

DETERGENTS

  • They are obtained synthetically from petroleum derivatives.
  • They harm the human body and skin.
  • They do not easily decompose.
  • They cause water pollution.
  • They cause environmental pollution.
  • There are special formulas for different purposes.
  • They are rarely affected by ions in hard waters.
  • They clean well even in cold water.
  • It has been widely used for the last 50-60 years.

Personal Cleaning Agents (Shampoo, toothpaste) – Benefits and Harms

Sodium lauryl sulfate (abbreviated to SLS) is surfactant chemical found in many cleaning and hygiene products, including toothpaste, shampoo, shaving cream and bubble baths. On the other hand, SLS is found in some engine degreasers where it acts in a similar capacity to remove grease.

Cleaning agents used for hygiene

Bleach: NaClO or NaOCl

Chemical name is sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chemical substance used for cleaning and hygiene purposes.

  • Bleach is bleaching agent by oxidation.
  • Two types of bleach:
  1. Chlorinated bleach
  2. Oxygenated bleach

NaClO bleaches the chemical bonds in the color pigments in the laundry (by breaking the double bonds between the C atoms and converting them into a single bond).

Answer

I, II & III

LIME PUTTY

Ca(OCl)2 = CaO + H2O + Cl2(g)

Bleaching powder (kireç kaymağı/macunu)

In real life: CaO (quick lime) + H2O

  • The calcium hypochlorite obtained by passing the chlorine gas from the suspended lime suspension is called lime putty.
  • The chemical formula of lime putty (calcium hypochlorite) is Ca(OCl)2.
  • It is a white solid in granular or tablet form.
  • It is used for cleaning because it destroys microorganisms by breaking them.
  • It is used in the food industry in a small amount to remove vegetables and fruits from microorganisms.
  • It disinfects the water when it is mixed with the pool water and prevents algae from forming in the pool.
  • It is also used to prevent the disintegration of soft fruits in jam making.
SOAPS AND DETERGENTS PRACTICE
MAKING SOAP EXPERIMENT