COMMON DAILY LIFE CHEMICALS
SOAP – DETERGENT
Na or K salt of fatty acids is called soap. They are the most important cleaning agents used since ancient times.
CH3(CH2)16–COONa: Sodium stearate (White Soap)
CH3(CH2)16–COOK: Potassium stearate (Arab Soap)
- Sodium (Na) soaps are hard and are used in molds. Potassium (K) soaps have lower melting points, soft soaps.
When the soap is produced, the fatty acid is obtained by hydrolysis from the oil:
FAT + H2O –> FATTY ACID + GLYCERYN
Na or K soap is obtained by neutralization from this fatty acid:
FATTY ACID + NaOH –> Na SOAP + H2O
A soap molecule consists of a long nonpolar hydrocarbon chain with a polar head. The nonpolar hydrocarbon chain of the molecule is hydrophobic and dissolve in non-polar materials (eg oil). The polar head of molecule is hydrophilic (water-loving) and soluble in water. Soaps form a part of the surfactants.
Personal Cleaning Agents (Shampoo, toothpaste) – Benefits and Harms
Sodium lauryl sulfate (abbreviated to SLS) is surfactant chemical found in many cleaning and hygiene products, including toothpaste, shampoo, shaving cream and bubble baths. On the other hand, SLS is found in some engine degreasers where it acts in a similar capacity to remove grease.
Cleaning agents used for hygiene
Bleach: NaClO or NaOCl
Chemical name is sodium hypochlorite (NaClO), chemical substance used for cleaning and hygiene purposes.
- Bleach is bleaching agent by oxidation.
- Two types of bleach:
- Chlorinated bleach
- Oxygenated bleach
NaClO bleaches the chemical bonds in the color pigments in the laundry (by breaking the double bonds between the C atoms and converting them into a single bond).
Ca(OCl)2 = CaO + H2O + Cl2(g)
Bleaching powder (kireç kaymağı/macunu)
In real life: CaO (quick lime) + H2O
- The calcium hypochlorite obtained by passing the chlorine gas from the suspended lime suspension is called lime putty.
- The chemical formula of lime putty (calcium hypochlorite) is Ca(OCl)2.
- It is a white solid in granular or tablet form.
- It is used for cleaning because it destroys microorganisms by breaking them.
- It is used in the food industry in a small amount to remove vegetables and fruits from microorganisms.
- It disinfects the water when it is mixed with the pool water and prevents algae from forming in the pool.
- It is also used to prevent the disintegration of soft fruits in jam making.